Diabetes Dictionary: S


A man-made sweetener that people use in place of sugar because it has no calories.

Saturated Fat
A type of fat that comes from animals.

See also: Fats.

Second Phase Insulin Release
Delayed release of insulin into the bloodstream from the beta cell after the blood glucose level rises. It is thought that this delayed release is due to release of insulin that is manufactured in the beta cell after the blood sugar starts to rise.

See also: First Phase Insulin Release.

Secondary Diabetes
When a person gets diabetes because of another disease or because of taking certain drugs or chemicals.

To make and give off such as when the beta cells make insulin and then release it into the blood so that the other cells in the body can use it to turn glucose (sugar) into energy.

Segmental Transplantation
A surgical procedure in which a part of a pancreas that contains insulin-producing cells is placed in a person whose pancreas has stopped making insulin.

Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose
A way as person can test how much glucose (sugar) is in the blood. Also called home blood glucose monitoring.

See also: Blood glucose monitoring.

A severe condition that causes severe low blood pressure, decreased level of consciousness, and is a threat to life.

Shock, insulin
A term no longer used. See Hypoglycemia; insulin reaction.

Sliding Scale
Adjusting insulin on the basis of blood glucose tests, meals, and activity levels.

Somatic Neuropathy
See: Peripheral neuropathy.

A hormone made by the delta cells of the pancreas (in areas called the islets of Langerhans). Scientists think it may control how the body secretes two other hormones, insulin and glucagon.

Somogyi Effect
A swing to a high level of glucose (sugar) in the blood from an extremely low level, usually occurring after an untreated insulin reaction during the night. The swing is caused by the release of stress hormones to counter low glucose levels. People who experience high levels of blood glucose in the morning may need to test their blood glucose levels in the middle of the night. If blood glucose levels are falling or low, adjustments in evening snacks or insulin doses may be recommended. This condition is named after Dr. Michael Somogyi, the man who first wrote about it. Also called "rebound."

See also: Dawn Phenomenon, Rebound

A sugar alcohol the body uses slowly. It is a sweetener used in diet foods. It is called a nutritive sweetener because it has four calories in every gram, just like table sugar and starch.

Sorbitol is also produced by the body. Too much sorbitol in cells can cause damage. Diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy may be related to too much sorbitol in the cells of the eyes and nerves.

Spilling Point
When the blood is holding so much of a substance such as glucose (sugar) that the kidneys allow the excess to spill into the urine.

See also: Renal threshold.

Split Dose
Division of a prescribed daily dose of insulin into two or more injections given over the course of a day. Also may be referred to as multiple injections. Many people who use insulin feel that split doses offer more consistent control over blood glucose (sugar) levels.

Stiff Hand Syndrome
Thickening of the skin of the palm that results in loss of ability to hold hand straight. This condition occurs only in people with diabetes.

Disease caused by damage to blood vessels in the brain. Depending on the part of the brain affected, a stroke can cause a person to lose the ability to speak or move a part of the body such as an arm or a leg. Usually only one side of the body is affected.

See also: Cerebrovascular disease.

Subclinical Diabetes
A term no longer used.

See: Impaired glucose tolerance.

Subcutaneous Injection
Putting a fluid into the tissue under the skin with a needle and syringe. See also: Injection.

Table sugar; a form of sugar that the body must break down into a more simple form before the blood can absorb it and take it to the cells.

A class of carbohydrates that taste sweet. Sugar is a quick and easy fuel for the body to use. Types of sugar are lactose, glucose, fructose, and sucrose.

See also: Glucose, fructose.

One of several different classes of pills that lower the level of glucose in the blood. Used in Type 2 diabetes.

There are several sulfonylurea pills available. Four, known as "first-generation" drugs, have been in use for some time. Three types, called "second-generation" drugs, have been developed recently. They are sometimes stronger than first-generation drugs and have fewer side effects. Each type of pill is sold under two names: one is the generic name as listed by the US Food and Drug Administration; the other is the trade name given by the manufacturer. They are:

First-Generation Agents:

Generic Name: Tolbutamide
Trade Name: Orinase

Generic Name: Acetohexamide
Trade Name: Dymelor

Generic Name: Tolazamide
Trade Name: Tolinase

Generic Name: Chloropropamide
Trade Name: Diabinese

Second-Generation Agents:

Generic Name: Glipizide
Trade Name: Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL

Generic Name: Glyburide
Trade Name: Diabeta, Micronase, Glynase

Generic Name: Glimepiride
Trade Name: Amaryl

See also: Oral hypoglycemic agents.

A manifestation relating to the body or its functions that is suggestive of disease. Example: frequent urination is a symptom of diabetes.

A set of signs or a series of events occurring together that make up a disease or health problem.

Syndrome X
A older phrase describing a combination of health conditions that place a person at high risk for heart disease. These conditions are Type 2 diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), hyperlipidemia (high levels of fat in the blood), and obesity. According to theory, all of these conditions are associated with high blood insulin levels, and it is claimed that the underlying problem in patients with Syndrome X is faulty insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas.

Now usually called the Metabolic Syndrome.

A device used to inject medications or other liquids into body tissues. The syringe for insulin has a hollow plastic or glass tube (barrel) with a plunger inside. The plunger forces the insulin through the needle into the body. Most insulin syringes now come with a needle attached. The side of the syringe has markings to show how much insulin is being injected.

A word used to describe conditions that affect the entire body. Diabetes is a systemic disease because it involves many parts of the body such as the pancreas, eyes, kidneys, heart, and nerves.

Systolic Blood Pressure
See: Blood pressure.


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Last Updated: Sun Jul 20 10:03:23 2008
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